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What means Dred?


The present disambiguation page holds the title of a primary topic, and an article needs to be written about it. It is believed to qualify as a broad-concept article. It may be written directly at this page or drafted elsewhere and then moved over here. Related titles should be described in Dread, while unrelated titles should be moved to Dread (disambiguation). ( February 2022 )

Look up dread in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Dread may refer to:

Feelings [ edit ]

  • Angst (in existentialist thought), a deep-seated spiritual condition of insecurity and despair in the free human being
  • Anxiety

People [ edit ]

Reggae musicians [ edit ]

  • Doctor Dread (born 1954), American music producer
  • Judge Dread (1945–1998), British musician
  • Massive Dread (c. 1960–1994), Jamaican deejay
  • Mikey Dread (1954–2008), Jamaican singer
  • Ranking Dread (c. 1955–1996), Jamaican deejay

Other [ edit ]

  • Adam Dread (born 1963), American lawyer and politician
  • Zebulon Dread, South African writer
  • Emmanuel Wilmer aka «Dread Wilmer» (died 2005)

Arts, entertainment, and media [ edit ]

Fictional entities [ edit ]

  • Dread & Alive, the award-winning black comic book series created by Nicholas Da Silva aka ZOOLOOK
  • Brig of Dread (Bridge of Dread), the mythological bridge to Purgatory
  • Judge Dread, the alternate universe Judge Dredd from Dread Dominion
  • Lord Dread, a character in the TV series Captain Power and the Soldiers of the Future

Games [ edit ]

  • Dread (role-playing game)
  • Dread: The First Book of Pandemonium, a role-playing game
  • Metroid Dread, a game in the Metroid franchise

Other arts, entertainment, and media [ edit ]

  • Dread (album) recorded by Living Colour
  • Dread (film) directed by Anthony DiBlasi
  • «Dread», a short story in Clive Barker’s Books of Blood series, or the comic book or stage adaptation of the same
  • Dread Broadcasting Corporation, a London pirate radio station
  • Dread (forum), a Reddit-like dark web discussion forum

Other uses [ edit ]

  • DREAD (risk assessment model)
  • Dread, a model of centrifugal gun
  • Dreadlocks, a hairstyle also known as dreads

See also [ edit ]

  • Anti Dread, Polish punk rock band
  • Dred (disambiguation)
  • Dredd (disambiguation)
  • Receptor activated solely by a synthetic ligand, also known as DREADD
  • Vandread, a science fiction anime

Topics referred to by the same term

This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Dread.
If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.

Retrieved from «»

  • Disambiguation pages
  • Disambiguation pages to be converted to broad concept articles
  • Short description is different from Wikidata
  • All article disambiguation pages
  • All disambiguation pages


From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English dread dread 1 / dred / ●○○ verb [ transitive ] WORRIED to feel anxious or worried about something that is going to happen or may happen I’ve got an interview tomorrow and I’m dreading it. dread doing something I’m dreading going back to work. dread somebody doing something Tim dreaded his parents finding out. dread (that) I’m dreading that I’ll be asked to make a speech. dread the thought/prospect of (doing) something He dreaded the prospect of being all alone in that house. I dread to think what will happen if they get elected (= I think it will be very bad ) . → See Verb table Examples from the Corpus dread • It prefers a rich, moist but well drained soil and dreads a dry windy site. • They avoided talking about Miss Poole or Heather and dreaded going to the weekly dinner parties. • I have to go to the dentist’s tomorrow, and I’m dreading it. • I had expected her to want to come back to the hotel with me and I was dreading it. • The Wilsons were coming back from holiday today, and I was dreading telling them what had happened while they were away. • The icy weather had citrus growers dreading the effects of frost. • He spat a bit as he spoke and Carrie dreaded the moment when she would have to shake hands and be spat at. • She will dread the thought of that final parting, which must come in time. I dread to think • What we will do next Season I dread to think . • What will happen when you publish on Sundays as well, I dread to think . • The children were playing in the room and they could have found it and I dread to think what may have happened. • I dread to think what might happen if he gets elected. • But without Debbie’s determination and your article, I dread to think what might have happened. dread dread 2 noun [ singular, uncountable ] FRIGHTENED a strong fear of something that is going to happen or may happen dread of (doing) something the dread of losing those we love with dread Bernice looked with dread at the end of the passage. The prospect of flying filled me with dread . She lives in dread of (= is continuously very afraid of ) the disease returning. Examples from the Corpus dread • A dread of black male sexuality remains. • At the time I was worn out, still reacting no doubt from living for years on end in fear and dread . • Humphrey backed up Dulles, not least because of his dread of excessive government spending. • You, with your midair dread , blindly bunched into that swinging house you call a home. • But the nameless dreads did not stop. • After a very short time we all felt a horrible feeling of being watched and an intangible atmosphere of dread and doom. • The cold hand of dread clutched Larsen’s guts. • I felt a sense of dread as I walked into the interview. filled . with dread • It accompanied her to bed at night and filled her dreams with dread and her sleep with sudden awakenings. • The prospect of entering the world of naturism filled me with dread . • The state of the suspension filled him with dread and he avoided thinking about it. • These things filled me with dread and horror. • His voice was filled with dread and fear and heavy weights. • My friends were filled with dread for the time when they would play my part in this ritual of passing. Origin dread 1 Old English drædan



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  • mortal fear/dread/terror

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Verb table


Simple Form
I, you, we, theydread
he, she, itdreads
> View More
I, you, he, she, it, we, theydreaded
Present perfect
I, you, we, theyhave dreaded
he, she, ithas dreaded
Past perfect
I, you, he, she, it, we, theyhad dreaded
I, you, he, she, it, we, theywill dread
Future perfect
I, you, he, she, it, we, theywill have dreaded
> View Less
Continuous Form
Iam dreading
he, she, itis dreading
> View More
you, we, theyare dreading
I, he, she, itwas dreading
you, we, theywere dreading
Present perfect
I, you, we, theyhave been dreading
he, she, ithas been dreading
Past perfect
I, you, he, she, it, we, theyhad been dreading
I, you, he, she, it, we, theywill be dreading
Future perfect
I, you, he, she, it, we, theywill have been dreading
> View Less

Use DRED to diagnose GPU faults

DRED stands for Device Removed Extended Data. DRED is an evolving set of diagnostic features designed to help you to identify the cause of unexpected device removal errors. On hardware that supports the necessary features (as defined below), DRED delivers automatic breadcrumbs as well as GPU page fault reporting.


To set the scene for auto-breadcrumbs, let’s first mention the manual variety. In anticipation of the eventuality of a Timeout Detection and Recovery (TDR), you can use the ID3D12GraphicsCommandList2::WriteBufferImmediate method to place breadcrumbs into the GPU command stream, in order to track GPU progress.

This is a reasonable approach if you want to create a custom, low-overhead implementation. But it may lack some of the versatility of a standardized solution, such as debugger extensions, or reporting via Windows Error Reporting (WER) (also known as Watson).

So, DRED’s auto-breadcrumbs call WriteBufferImmediate to place progress counters into the GPU command stream. DRED inserts a breadcrumb after each render op—which means every operation that results in GPU work (for example, Draw, Dispatch, Copy, Resolve, and others). If the device is removed in the middle of a GPU workload, then the DRED breadcrumb value is essentially a collection of the render ops that completed before the error.

The breadcrumb history ring buffer retains up to 64KiB operations in a given command list. If there are more than 65536 operations in a command list, then only the last 64KiB operations are stored—overwriting the oldest operations first. However, the breadcrumb counter value continues to count up to UINT_MAX . Therefore, LastOpIndex = (BreadcrumbCount — 1) % 65536.

DRED 1.0 was first available in Windows 10, version 1809 (Windows 10 October 2018 Update), and it exposed rudimentary auto-breadcrumbs. However, there were no APIs for it, and the only way to enable DRED 1.0 was to use Feedback Hub to capture a TDR reproduction (repro) for Apps & Games > Game Performance and Compatibility. The primary purpose for DRED 1.0 was to help to root-cause-analyze game crashes via customer feedback.


  • Because a GPU is heavily pipelined, there’s no guarantee that the breadcrumb counter indicates the exact operation that failed. In fact, on some tile-based deferred render devices, it’s possible for the breadcrumb counter to be a full resource or unordered access view (UAV) barrier behind the actual GPU progress.
  • A display driver can reorder commands, pre-fetch from resource memory well before executing a command, or flush cached memory well-after completion of a command. Any of these can produce a GPU error. In such cases, the auto-breadcrumb counters may be less helpful, or misleading.


Although auto-breadcrumbs are designed to be low-overhead, they are not free. Empirical measurements show 2-5% performance loss on a typical AAA Direct3D 12 graphics game engine. For this reason, auto-breadcrumbs are off by default.

Hardware requirements

Because the breadcrumb counter values must be preserved after device removal, the resource that contains breadcrumbs must exist in system memory, and it must persist in the event of device removal. This means that the display driver needs to support D3D12_FEATURE_EXISTING_HEAPS. Fortunately, this is the case for most Direct3D 12 display drivers on Windows 10, version 1903.

GPU page fault reporting

A feature that’s new for DRED 1.1 is DRED GPU page fault reporting. A GPU page fault commonly occurs under one of these conditions.

  1. An application mistakenly executes work on the GPU that references a deleted object. This is one of the top reasons for an unexpected device removal.
  2. An application mistakenly executes work on the GPU that accesses an evicted resource, or a non-resident tile.
  3. A shader references an uninitialized or stale descriptor.
  4. A shader indexes beyond the end of a root binding.

DRED attempts to address some of these scenarios by reporting the names and types of any existing or recently freed API objects that match the virtual address (VA) of the GPU-reported page fault.


Not all GPUs support page faults (although, many do). Some GPUs respond to memory faults by: bit-bucket writes; reading simulated data (for example, zeros); or by simply hanging. Unfortunately, in cases where the GPU doesn’t immediately hang, a Timeout Detection and Recovery (TDR) can happen later in the pipe, making it even harder to locate the root cause.


The Direct3D 12 runtime must actively curate a collection of existing and recently-deleted API objects indexable by virtual address (VA). This increases the system memory overhead, and introduces a small performance hit to object creation and destruction. For that reason, this behavior is off by default.

Hardware requirements

A GPU that doesn’t support page faulting can still benefit from the auto-breadcrumbs feature.

Setting up DRED in code

DRED settings are global to the process, and you must configure them prior to creating a Direct3D 12 Device. To do so, call the D3D12GetDebugInterface function to retrieve an ID3D12DeviceRemovedExtendedDataSettings.

CComPtr pDredSettings; VERIFY_SUCCEEDED(D3D12GetDebugInterface(IID_PPV_ARGS(&pDredSettings))); // Turn on auto-breadcrumbs and page fault reporting. pDredSettings->SetAutoBreadcrumbsEnablement(D3D12_DRED_ENABLEMENT_FORCED_ON); pDredSettings->SetPageFaultEnablement(D3D12_DRED_ENABLEMENT_FORCED_ON); 

Modifications to DRED settings have no effect on devices already created. But subsequent calls to D3D12CreateDevice use the most recent DRED settings.

Accessing DRED data in code

After device removal has been detected (for example, Present returns DXGI_ERROR_DEVICE_REMOVED), use the methods of the ID3D12DeviceRemovedExtendedData interface to access the DRED data for the removed device.

To retrieve the ID3D12DeviceRemovedExtendedData interface, call QueryInterface on an ID3D12Device (or derived) interface, passing the interface identifier (IID) of ID3D12DeviceRemovedExtendedData.

void MyDeviceRemovedHandler(ID3D12Device * pDevice) < CComPtrpDred; VERIFY_SUCCEEDED(pDevice->QueryInterface(IID_PPV_ARGS(&pDred))); D3D12_DRED_AUTO_BREADCRUMBS_OUTPUT DredAutoBreadcrumbsOutput; D3D12_DRED_PAGE_FAULT_OUTPUT DredPageFaultOutput; VERIFY_SUCCEEDED(pDred->GetAutoBreadcrumbsOutput(&DredAutoBreadcrumbsOutput)); VERIFY_SUCCEEDED(pDred->GetPageFaultAllocationOutput(&DredPageFaultOutput)); // Custom processing of DRED data can be done here. // Produce telemetry. // Log information to console. // break into a debugger. > 

Debugger access to DRED

Debuggers have access to the DRED data via the d3d12!D3D12DeviceRemovedExtendedData data export.

For WinDbg users, see the DirectX-Debugging-Tools GitHub repository for a WinDBG extension that makes it much easier to debug Direct3D 12 DRED state.

DRED telemetry

Your application can use the DRED APIs to control DRED features, and to collect telemetry to help analyze problems. This gives you a much broader net for catching those hard-to-reproduce TDRs.

As of Windows 10, version 1903, all user-mode device-removed events are reported to Windows Error Reporting (WER), also known as Watson. If a particular combination of application, GPU, and display driver generates a sufficient number of device-removed events, then it’s possible that DRED will be temporarily enabled for customers launching the same application on a similar configuration.

More info about DRED

  • The DirectX-Debugging-Tools GitHub repository
  • Debugger extension for DRED blog post
  • DRED v1.2 supports PIX marker and event strings in Auto-Breadcrumbs blog post
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