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What methods did the Tainos use to cook?

Brain Writings

It was customary for the Tainos to cook on a grill known as a “barbacoa” (which means heated sticks) made of pimento wood which was used to jerk wild pigs. The meat would be seasoned and cooked over a low fire.

How do Jamaicans prepare their food?

This food is now one of the trademarks of Jamaica. Jamaica also assimilates the modern preparation methods, such as boiling, roasting, seasoning, drying, baking and frying. As the red meat is not frequently used, most of the techniques are used on vegetables and fruits.

What are 3 cooking methods used in the Caribbean?

While most items are grilled when using the jerk cooking method, other cooking methods such as broiling, baking and steaming are also used.

What is traditional Jamaican food?

Traditional Jamaican Food

  • Ackee and Codfish. Ackee and Salt Codfish is Jamaica’s national dish, and an interesting and delicious dish at that.
  • Rice and Peas. So what goes on the plate with your jerk chicken?
  • Callaloo.
  • Bammy.
  • Coco Bread.
  • Jamaican Beef Patties.
  • Authentic Jerk Chicken.
  • Curry Goat.

What is the Tainos favorite dish?

The Taino began the process of preparing meat and fish in large clay pots. The Carib Indians introduced spices and lemon juice to their meat and fish recipes. In general, the favorite Caribbean dish is seasoned jerk chicken. This spicy cuisine is unique.

Why is Jamaican food unique?

What Makes Jamaican Food Unique? A culinary melting pot that reflects the cultures that have influenced the island over the centuries, Jamaica’s local cuisine focuses on fruits, vegetables, meats, and seafood that are all typically grown and sourced by the regional farmers.

What do poor Jamaicans eat?

The Jamaican Hardough Bread is the favorite for poor people to make sandwiches with Ackee, Callaloo, Sardines, Bully Beef, Cheese, Butter, Ripe Banana, and Plantain. Break smoked herring into two pieces and sandwich with water crackers. You’ll drink a fair amount of water after having this sandwich.

What kind of meat do Jamaicans eat?

Jamaicans eat most kinds of meat, with chicken, pork and beef being popular everyday meals. Goat, mutton and oxtail are served in most Jamaican restaurants or cooked in Jamaican homes. Seafood such as fish, lobster, and shrimp are cooked in a variety of ways. Many Jamaicans do not eat meat.

What is the flavor profile of Caribbean cooking?

Caribbean cuisine features allspice in many dishes, including meat and sweet potato stews. Sweet and spicy, this Caribbean native is a key player in Jamaican jerk seasoning. It combines the warm flavors of cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg.

What is Roux ratio?

What Is the Standard Ratio. While it should always be done by weight, a standard ratio for a roux recipe is 2 parts all-purpose flour to 1 part butter. For example: 2 tablespoons flour -to- 1 tablespoon butter.

Do you know how to cook food in Jamaica?

What kind of peppers are used in Jamaican cooking?

What’s the best way to cook chicken in Jamaica?

How long does it take to cook beef belly in Jamaica?

Exploring the Early Americas
Columbus and the Taíno

When Christopher Columbus arrived on the Bahamian Island of Guanahani (San Salvador) in 1492, he encountered the Taíno people, whom he described in letters as «naked as the day they were born.» The Taíno had complex hierarchical religious, political, and social systems. Skilled farmers and navigators, they wrote music and poetry and created powerfully expressive objects. At the time of Columbus’s exploration, the Taíno were the most numerous indigenous people of the Caribbean and inhabited what are now Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. By 1550, the Taíno were close to extinction, many having succumbed to diseases brought by the Spaniards. Taíno influences survived, however, and today appear in the beliefs, religions, language, and music of Caribbean cultures.

Columbus’s Account of 1492 Voyage

After his first transatlantic voyage, Christopher Columbus sent an account of his encounters in the Americas to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. Several copies of his manuscript were made for court officials, and a transcription was published in April 1493. This Latin translation was published the same year. In reporting on his trip to his sovereigns, Columbus wrote:

There I found very many islands, filled with innumerable people, and I have taken possession of them all for their Highnesses, done by proclamation and with the royal standard unfurled, and no opposition was offered to me.

Christopher Columbus (1451–1506). Epistola Christofori Colom (Letters of Christopher Columbus). Rome: Stephan Plannck, after April 29,1493. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (048.00.00, 048.00.01, 048.00.02, 048.00.03)

Columbus’s Voyage and the New World

This edition of the Columbus letter, printed in Basel in 1494, is illustrated. The five woodcuts, which supposedly illustrate Columbus’s voyage and the New World, are in fact mostly imaginary, and were probably adapted drawings of Mediterranean places. This widely published report made Columbus famous throughout Europe. It earned him the title of Admiral, secured him continued royal patronage, and enabled him to make three more trips to the Caribbean, which he firmly believed to the end was a part of Asia. Seventeen editions of the letter were published between 1493 and 1497. Only eight copies of all the editions are extant.

Christopher Columbus. De Insulis nuper in Mari Indico repertis in Carolus Verardus: Historia Baetica. Basel: I.B. [Johann Bergman de Olpe], 1494. Jay I. Kislak Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (048.01.00, 048.01.01, 048.01.02, 048.01.03)

Columbus’s Book of Privileges

On January 5, 1502, prior to his fourth and final voyage to America, Columbus gathered several judges and notaries at his home in Seville to authenticate copies of original documents in which Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand had granted titles, revenues, powers, and privileges to him and his descendants. These thirty-six documents are popularly called Columbus’s «Book of Privileges.» Four copies of his «Book» existed in 1502, including one now in Paris from which the elaborate facsimile shown here was made. This publication was one of a number of major documentary projects commemorating the 400th anniversary of the first Columbus voyage in 1892.

Benjamin Stevens, first comp. and ed. Christopher Columbus, His Own Book of Privileges, 1502. London: Chiswick Press, 1893. Jay I. Kislak Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (050.00.00, 050.00.01, 050.00.02, 050.00.03)

  • Watch the video

Columbus Biography Written by His Son

Fernando Colón was born in Córdoba, Spain, in 1488 and spent his early years there with his mother. As a youth, he traveled to the New World with his father on Columbus’s fourth voyage. As an adult, Fernando became a scholar and built a large personal library using the income from his father’s legacy. Fernando wrote this biography in defense of his father in about 1538.

Fernando Colón (1488–1539). Historie del sig. don Fernando Colombo, nelle quali s’hà particolare, & vera relatione della vita, & de’ fatti dell’ammiraglio don Christoforo Colombo suo padre (History by Don Fernando Columbus . . . Don Christopher Columbus, his father). Milan: Girolamo Bordoni, [1614]. Jay I. Kislak Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (051.00.00, 051.00.02, 051.00.03)

Columbus’s Legacy

The grants of privileges and property bestowed on Christopher Columbus by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella became the subject of ongoing litigation between his descendants and the Spanish crown that lasted for centuries. The dispute was finally settled in 1796 in favor of Columbus’s descendants. This collection of printed documents, which includes extracts of Columbus’s will, relates to a dispute over the line of inheritance of one of the explorer’s estates in the Americas.

Christoper Columbus. Por parte del conde de Gelues, de doña Francisca Colon, de don Christoual Colon, y de don Baltasar Colon, se suplica a V.m. que cerca de la executoria que la parte de la marquesa de Guadaleste pide, de la que llama sente[n]cia, dada en su fauor por el consejo Real de las Indias. [Spain: s.n., ca. 1586]. Jay I. Kislak Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (052.00.00, 052.00.01, 052.00.02, 052.00.03)

Ceremonial Wooden Stool

Preserved Pre-Columbian duhos (ceremonial wooden stools) from the Caribbean region are exceedingly rare because they are usually found only in dry highland caves. There are two basic types: low horizontal forms with concave seats, such as this one, and stools with long curved backrests. Scholars differ as to the function of the stools. Some believe they represented seats of authority. Others think they served as altars for votive offerings. Still others argue that the Taíno peoples used them as ceremonial trays for making cohoba, a hallucinogenic snuff prepared for shamanistic rituals.

Ceremonial wooden stool («Duho»). Haiti.Taíno, AD 1000–1500. Carved lignum vitae. Jay I. Kislak Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (054.00.00). ©Justin Kerr, Kerr Associates

Taíno Amulet

The Taíno, a subgroup of the Arawakan Indians from northeastern South America, inhabited the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico). The Taíno created a complicated religious system that included a hierarchy of deities, which included Yucahu, the supreme Creator and the lord of cassava and the sea and Atabey, the goddess of fresh water and human fertility, as well as Yucahu’s mother. The Taíno believed that zemis, gods of both sexes, represented by both human and animal forms, provided protection.

Meat Your Maker: The Origins of «Barbecue»

It’s summer, and that means it’s barbecue season.

The word barbecue can refer to a way of cooking with fire, the food cooked in this manner, or even the outdoor party where people eat all that smoky deliciousness. But where did the word originate? Fix yourself an ice-cold beverage and let’s lift the lid on some very American etymology.

Arawak (or Arhuaco) is the name used to describe some indigenous peoples in South America and the Caribbean islands. Though geographically widespread, and composed of numerous tribes, the Arawak people speak related languages, which are all part of the Arawakan family. This language group, which likely originated in the area that is now Bolivia and Colombia, was the predominant language of South America and the islands when Europeans arrived in the fifteenth century. Speakers of these languages in the Caribbean referred to themselves as Taíno, meaning «relatives.» The Taíno were the first Americans that Europeans encountered when Christopher Columbus arrived at Guanahani island in the Bahamas in 1492.

Here’s how that relates to the backyard barbecue we know today.

Barabicu is the Taíno word for a framework that’s made of sticks and elevated above the ground on posts and used for different purposes. One was sleeping, since they kept people safe from creatures prowling below.

(Speaking of sleeping, the word hammock comes from the Carib Indian word hamaca — the Carib were the other main inhabitants of the Caribbean islands at the time of the European conquest.)

Barabicu frames were also used for drying or cooking meat. Because they were fairly high up, out of range of the flames so the sticks wouldn’t catch fire, food would cook slowly and pick up a lot of flavor from the smoke. On the island of Hispaniola, today divided between Haiti and the Dominican Republic, the local linguistic variant of barabicu was barbakoa.

Because smoky, slow-cooked meat is delicious, this culinary technique caught on among the invaders, giving its name to the meat as well as the method. Barbacoa entered Spain and spread throughout Europe from there: to Portuguese, then French, and into English by 1648. The first recorded use in English of barbecue describing not just the cooking method but also people gathering outdoors to enjoy the feast is from 1733.

In Mexico and parts of the U.S., barbacoa is still used to describe a different kind of traditional cooking, where goat, lamb, or beef is cooked for hours in a pit dug in the ground. And barbecue means different things in different regions within the U.S.; in the Carolinas it’s most often pork, while in Texas beef brisket is the king of meats. Other cities and states have their own specialties, and particular sauces, and fans of each style will swear that theirs is the best, or even the only true form of barbecue.

Without taking sides in whose recipe wins the taste test, we will say that any barbecue worthy of that name involves indirect heat, as in a smoker, for a prolonged period. If your meat is right over the flames then you’re grilling, not barbecuing.

A final note: there are a number of theories regarding the origin of BBQ, from a rancher’s brand to a nineteenth-century pool hall advertisement, but most experts agree that it’s just an abbreviation, albeit an unusual one where the first letter of each syllable is included.

We’re running down the origins of some summer-related words. Here are a few more:

After 20 years as a painter, Peter Barrett escaped the art world for the wilds of upstate New York, where he took up cooking, gardening, photography, and writing. In addition to regularly contributing «News» and «Just for Fun» content for Vocabulary.com, he writes for his own blog and several magazines. When he’s not cooking or writing about cooking, he plays a lot of guitar and tends a vegetable garden that’s visible from space.

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